The industrialisation of Europe had significant consequences for food. In 1850, a small proportion of the European population was still directly involved in food production. As industrialisation spread, it coincided with the growth of a new social class. These workers lived in towns, and they began consuming processed food. They also became more exposed to adulterated food. Bread was often adulterated with chalk, and cheese was often coloured red with lead oxide.
Phytonutrients in Food is a comprehensive book on the science of phytonutrients. It provides an overview of phytonutrients, and describes the methods used for phytonutrient extraction, separation, identification, and quantification.
Carbohydrates are substances that are present in food in many different forms. Some of these compounds are starches, while others are sugars and other forms of fiber. Carbohydrates increase blood glucose levels and need to be consumed in moderation in order to maintain a normal blood glucose level. The correct amount of carbohydrates to consume depends on your size, diet, and activity level. A useful tool to select the right amount of carbohydrates is the glycemic index.
Protein can be found in a number of foods, both animal and plant. Foods that are high in protein are meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Other high-quality sources include pulses, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Lower-quality sources include tofu and textured vegetable protein. However, vegetarian and vegan diets can also contain protein in adequate amounts.
The amount of fat in food has long been a controversial subject, but the facts remain the same: Fats are among the most calorie-dense substances in food, containing more calories per gram than proteins or carbohydrates. Despite this, we still need a large quantity of energy-dense foods in many parts of the world, and fats serve a variety of essential functions in food. They also make foods more filling and taste good, and help the body to absorb vitamins and minerals.
Vegetables are plants that are grown for food. They may also be used as fodder by domesticated animals. The word “vegetable” was first recorded in English in the early 15th century and initially applied to any plant. It is still used as an adjective to describe all plants. The word comes from Medieval Latin, where it meant “growing” and Late Latin, where it meant “to liven.” In other words, the word “vegetable” means “any plant that grows.”
Fish is a rich source of protein and is an essential part of many people’s diets. Just 150 grams of fish can provide the average adult with half their daily recommended protein intake. The consumption of fish is increasing in both developed and developing nations. In 2010, the United States and Europe consumed more than half of the world’s fish catch. Most of the remaining fish was consumed in Asia. This trend can be attributed to the growing population and the demand for nutritious foods.